Roman money was normally coined at Rome, but sometime the mints
of other Italian towns, or those of other provinces, were used.
During the Republican times conquered countries and provinces were
not deprived of the right of coining their own money.
This right was kept under the empire for a long time, although with
some differences: some places were allowed to coin their money as
they always did, others had to strike on their coins the head of
the emperor, or of members of the imperial family.
Silver and gold, were coined only in best mints.
When all Italy received the Roman citizenship and rights, all the
Italians had to use the Roman money, and in consequence lost the
right to coin their own.
Some kind of officers (called triumviri monetales) with the duty
of supervising the coinage were introduced (probably) when Romans
started striking silver coins. They signed a lot of silver and gold
coins with some inscriptions that can vary in time and place.
From the time of Augustus
the triumviri no longer put their names on coins, because it was
exclusive privilege of the emperor to coin silver and gold. The
senate kept only the right of coining copper, therefore almost all
copper coins of this period are marked with S. C. or EX S. C. (ex
At the time of Gallienus
when coining any kind of money became exclusive privilege of the
emperors but, due to the vast extension of the empire, more than
one mint had to be used in several provinces, such as Gaul. In these
distant mints Roman money was coined under the superintendence of
quaestors or proconsuls. Roman colonies and provinces therefore
gradually stopped coining their own money.
In the western parts of the empire this must have taken place during
the first century A.D. but in the East Roman money did not become
universal until after Gallienus
During the reign of Aurelianus
a great number of cities of the empire had mints in which Roman
money was coined, and during the latter period of the empire the
superintendents of mints are called "Procuratores" or